Rashed [ 9 ] sees a remarkable depth and novelty in these calculations by al-Khwarizmi which appear to us, when examined from a modern perspective, as relatively elementary. His sundial was universal and could be observed from anywhere on the Earth.

This is not the last disagreement that we shall meet in describing the life and work of al-Khwarizmi. It is largely concerned with methods for solving practical computational problems rather than algebra as the term is now understood.

When his work became known in Europe through Latin translations, his influence made a permanent mark on the development of science in the West.

He was long considered the father of algebra. The translation was most likely done in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bathwho had also translated the astronomical tables in There is also a Latin version of the longer version and both these Latin works have survived. He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for al-Ma'munthe caliph, overseeing 70 geographers.

He continued the patronage of learning started by his father and founded an academy called the House of Wisdom where Greek philosophical and scientific works were translated. It could be used for any latitude on Earth and at any time of the year to determine the time in hours from the altitude of the Sun.

A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge. However, Rashed [12] points out that: It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry.

He also wrote two books on using and constructing astrolabes. Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomyIndian numbersand Greek mathematics.

As with the Algebra, its chief interest is as the earliest Arab work still in existence in Arabic. A unique Arabic copy is kept at Oxford and was translated in by F. The number three therefore represents one root of this square, which itself, of course is 9.

The algebra of al-Khwarizmi was rhetorical in form. Let us end this article with a quote by Mohammad Kahn, given in [ 3 ]: Al-Khwarizmi flourished while working as a member of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad under the leadership of Kalif al-Mamun, the son of the Khalif Harun al-Rashid, who was made famous in the Arabian Nights.

He had two sons, the eldest was al-Amin while the younger was al-Mamun. He also wrote an important work on astronomy, covering calendars, calculating true positions of the sun, moon and planets, tables of sines and tangents, spherical astronomy, astrological tables, parallax and eclipse calculations, and visibility of the moon.

The main topics covered by al-Khwarizmi in the Sindhind zij are calendars; calculating true positions of the sun, moon and planets, tables of sines and tangents; spherical astronomy; astrological tables; parallax and eclipse calculations; and visibility of the moon.

He also wrote a political history containing horoscopes of prominent persons. Certainly al-Khwarizmi worked under the patronage of Al-Mamun and he dedicated two of his texts to the Caliph.

In passing, he also introduced into common usage our present numerical system, which replaced the old, cumbersome Roman one. Multiply this by itself, it is two thousand five hundred and fifty and a quarter.

Having introduced the natural numbers, al-Khwarizmi introduces the main topic of this first section of his book, namely the solution of equations.

His systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing".

In CE he published Zij al-Sindhind which contained 37 chapters of calendrical and astronomical calculations and charts detailing movement of the sun, moon and planets. Al-jabr is the process of removing negative units, roots and squares from the equation by adding the same quantity to each side.

A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge. Toomer … with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader. The shadow square, an instrument used to determine the linear height of an object, in conjunction with the alidade for angular observations, was also invented by al-Khwarizmi in ninth-century Baghdad.

It also contains sections on calculating areas and volumes of geometric figures and on the use of algebra to solve inheritance problems according to proportions prescribed by Islamic law. The solution had to be general and calculable at the same time and in a mathematical fashion, that is, geometrically founded.

The shaping of our mathematics can be attributed to Al-Khwarizmi, the chief librarian of the observatory, research center and library called the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.

Al-Khwarizmi then shows how to solve the six standard types of equations. Squares equal to numbers. Map of South Caucasus drawn ca. They were translated into Latin, together with their lengthy introduction, by Adelard of Bath in. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was a mathematician and an astronomer whose major works introduced Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics.

Al-Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad, where he worked at the “House of Wisdom” under Caliph al-Ma’mun. Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi Facts Abū 'Abdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī ((c. to c. ) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer during the Abbasid Caliphate.

He was a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Ibn al-Nadīm's Kitāb al-Fihrist includes a short biography on al-Khwārizmī together with a list of the books he wrote. Al-Khwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between and After the Muslim conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade.

Al-Khwārizmī, in full Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizm Biography of Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi; History of Islam - An Encyclopedia of Islamic History - Biography of Al Khwarizmi; Britannica Websites.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Abu Ja ʿ far Muhammad ibn Musa was born in Baghdad in about Khwarezm or Khwārizmī and lived to about per year. Harun al-Rashid became the fifth Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty on 14 Septemberat about the same time as al-Khwarizmi. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.

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The life and times of muhammad ibn musa al khwarizmi
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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi - Biography, Facts and Pictures